跨國移工、台灣建國意識與公民運動

作者: 
英文標題: 
Transnational Labor, Citizenship and State-Building Ideology in Taiwan
出版地: 
台北
出版時間: 
2002/12
語言: 
繁體中文
主題: 
摘要: 
本文企圖以台灣境內移駐勞工(外勞)為例,介入目前國際學界對兩個彼此相關的問題討論:跨國主義 (transnationalism) 與新跨國勞動力流動;及移駐勞工、公民權及人權之間的關係。   當前跨國勞動力流動不是線性的,而是迂迴放射性的。由於亞洲國家對公民權的取得以血統為主要原則,入籍限制嚴格;和亞洲地區的契約式勞動力流動型態,以致跨國移工已成為永久性客工。建立在客工是一個過渡現象之上的傳統移民理論,因此不足以處理現在的跨國人力流動。有些學者認為應該重新界定「公民」概念,不可將之侷限於國家的疆土範圍之內。台灣改變中的國族概念如何與人民、公民這些概念聯結?這樣的聯結對跨國移工有什麼影響?   本文就外勞意向、建國意識、地域空間、及權利主張這四種變項之間的關係做一初步的探討。它說明傳統中國對血統的重視,雖然仍舊主導台灣對公民概念的理解,但在台灣進行中的建國方案的地理政治考慮下正產生改變。面對全球性的人力流動,同時作為一個亟需外勞的國家,台灣必須重新評價它的建國意識。本文分析出三條路徑:優遇外勞多於中國大陸華人而改變以血統為原則的排外政策;或偏重華裔而放寬對大陸居民來台的限制;和以居民參與公共事務和經濟、社會及政治生活為公民的基礎。前兩者都要求發展出一個有前瞻性的、以公民參與為原則的國族概念;後者則完全跳脫族國框架。無論採取何者,都必定是一個新的包容方式來面對全球化人口流動引發的人文、社會和經濟的挑戰。   This study of foreign labor in Taiwan attempts to contribute to contemporary discourses on two inter-related problematics: 1. Transnationalism and the formation of new transnational labor migration; and 2. Migrant labor, citizenship or human rights.   Current transnational migration is non-linear but diasporic. Since Asian nation-states do not provide a system of citizenship acquisition based on naturalization, and the prevailing contract migrant labor regime in the region, "migrant labor" has become a permanent "guest-working" phenomenon. How does the changing conceptualization of the nation-state in Taiwan relates to the idea of nationhood and citizenship? And what is its implication for the incorporation of migrant labor?   This study theorizes the relationship between migrant orientation, state-building ideology, territoriality, and the basis for rights-claims of migrants. It shows that traditional Chinese emphasis on lineage and ancestry, though still a dominant role in the conception of nationhood, is modified by geopolitical concerns in Taiwan's on-going state-building project. As a state-in-formation in need of outside labor, Taiwan must reevaluate its state-building ideology. This analysis points to three potential routes: to privilege transnational foreign labor over mainland Chinese and change its descent centered exclusionist policy; or to privilege ethnic Chinese and relax its political vigilance toward PRC ; or to insist on resident participation in public affairs and in the economic, political and social lives of Taiwan as a new basis of citizenship. The former two alternatives require the construction of a new concept of nationhood that is based on a forward-looking principle of citizen participation; whereas the last one is unbounded by any predetermined nation-state framework. Regardless of which is adopted, it will be a new model capable of meeting the challenge of contemporary global labor flows.

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