The Primitive Accumulation of Capital and the Peasant Migrant Workers in Mainland China
從1978年以來中國大陸所進行的改革開放，已經使得中國大陸日益朝一個資本主義社會方向發展。在資本主義生產方式確立以前，會出現「資本原始積累」的過程，資本原始積累概念具有兩重意義：一是財富的集中，提供工業化最初資本積累的來源，二是「自由」勞動力的形成，為雇佣勞動生產創造基本的條件。因此在資本原始積累階段，將會出現大量農民被迫離開土地，成為「自由」的勞動力。 中國大陸原先是一個社會主義社會，因此它目前正在進行的資本原始積累過程勢必有其獨特之處，與資本主義發達國家的經驗非常不一樣，例如英國在資本原始積累過程時採取的是圈地運動的模式強迫農民離開土地，中國大陸卻在此之前先進行了某種形式的分地運動，自然使得農民離開土地的模式會與英國不一樣。本文將從比較的角度探討中國資本原始積累的特色及農民離開土地的模式，分析中國大陸與其他資本主義發達國家發展經驗的差異，進而研究這樣的流動方式對於中國大陸未來資本主義發展的影響。 The reform policy pursued by the Mainland Chinese government since 1978 has transformed the country into an ever more capitalist society. Before any capitalist mode of production is firmly established, there has to be a stage of "primitive accumulation of capital." This term carries a dual meaning: on one side there is the concentration of wealth allowing the initial accumulation of capital for industrialization; on the other there is the formation of a ree"labor force which makes possible production based on wage labor. It is, therefore, often a highly visible character of the stage of the primitive accumulation of capital that large amount of peasants are forced to leave the land to become "free" laborers. Mainland China has been a socialist society in the past. The process of primitive accumulation of capital that is currently taking place in China, therefore, has to be very different from that in the historical experience of the advanced capitalist countries. Primitive accumulation of capital in England, for example, is characterized by the enclosure movement, which forced peasant farmers to leave the land. China, however, has undergone a movement of land redistribution, which naturally entails a pattern of the separation of peasants from the land that is different from that in England. This article uses comparative studies to explore the patterns of the primitive accumulation of capital and the separation of peasants from the land in China. The Chinese experience will be compared and contrasted with the experience of capitalist development in other capitalist countries. Such analyses can contribute to understanding the future development of capitalism in China.